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Stephen Hawking: A Biography
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Few scientists are as recognizable as Stephen Hawking. Despite having Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Lou Gehrig's Disease --an affliction that many experts expected to have killed him decades ago--Hawking remains a vital and influential voice in the scientific community. One of the leading cosmologists studying the celestial phenomenon known as black holes, Hawking has als Few scientists are as recognizable as Stephen Hawking.
One of the leading cosmologists studying the celestial phenomenon known as black holes, Hawking has also led the way in popularizing science with his best-selling work A Brief History of Time.
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This biography of Hawking, written by a physicist, provides an accessible introduction to the life and work of an inspirational figure. Get A Copy. Hardcoverpages. Published June 1st by Greenwood Press first published More Details Original Title. Greenwood Biographies. Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Stephen Hawkingplease sign up.
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To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Stephen Hawking is arguably the most famous physicist since Albert Einstein. His decades-long struggle with ALS Lou Gehrig's diseasecombined with his singular brilliance as a cosmologist, has fascinated both the public and his colleagues in science. In this engagingly written biography, Kristine Larsen, a physicist and astronomer herself, presents a candid and insightful portrait of Hawking's personal and professional life. Avoiding the hero-worship sometimes found in popular works on Hawking, Larsen emphasizes that Hawking is first and foremost a scientist whose work has made significant contributions to our understanding of the nature and origins of the universe.
Writing in nontechnical language for the lay reader, Larsen clearly explains Hawking's complex scientific accomplishments, while telling the story of his challenging life. Topics include Hawking's early lack of focus as a college student; the impact of ALS on his career and personal life; his groundbreaking work on radiating black holes; his later cutting-edge theories of black holes, cosmology, and the anthropic principle; the amazing publishing success of A Brief History of Time; and his status as a pop icon and spokesperson for the interplay of science and society.
Larsen situates Hawking's sometimes-controversial work within the broader context of scientific peer review and public debate, and discusses his personal life with compassion, respect, and honesty.
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Print length. Publication date. October 31, See all details. Next page. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Frequently bought together. Add all three to Cart Add all three to List. These items are shipped from and sold by different sellers. Show details. Ships from and sold by Amazon. FREE Shipping. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. A Brief History of Time. Stephen Hawking. Who Was Stephen Hawking? Jim Gigliotti.
Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind. Kitty Ferguson. Michael Woodford. Dave A. More items to explore. Register a free business account. Review "His devilishly complex cosmological theories are handled engagingly in accessible language for the lay reader. Kristine M. Larsen New Britain, CTprofessor of physics and astronomy at Central Connecticut State University, is the author of Cosmology and numerous articles in scholarly journals. Tell the Publisher!Few scientists are as recognizable as Stephen Hawking.
Despite having Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Lou Gehrig's Disease --an affliction that many experts expected to have killed him decades ago--Hawking remains a vital and influential voice in the scientific community.
One of the leading cosmologists studying the celestial phenomenon known as black holes, Hawking has also led the way in popularizing science with his best-selling work A Brief History of Time. This biography of Hawking, written by a physicist, provides an accessible introduction to the life and work of an inspirational figure.
Greenwood Publishing Group Labirint Ozon. Stephen Hawking : A Biography. Kristine Larsen. Shellard early universe Einstein entropy equations event horizon exams false vacuum field friends Future of Theoretical G. Rankin Cambridge S. Hawking scientific scientist singularity Sitter space space-time steady state model Stephen Hawking Stephen Hawking's Universe string theory supergravity symmetry temperature Theoretical Physics Theory of Everything thermodynamics tion wheelchair wormhole York.Stephen Hawking was a British scientist, professor and author who performed groundbreaking work in physics and cosmology, and whose books helped to make science accessible to everyone.Codigo postal de bartolome mitre 1444 caba
At age 21, while studying cosmology at the University of Cambridgehe was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS. Part of his life story was depicted in the film The Theory of Everything. The eldest of Frank and Isobel Hawking's four children, Hawking was born into a family of thinkers.
His Scottish mother earned her way into Oxford University in the s — a time when few women were able to go to college. His father, another Oxford graduate, was a respected medical researcher with a specialty in tropical diseases.
Hawking's birth came at an inopportune time for his parents, who didn't have much money. The political climate was also tense, as England was dealing with World War II and the onslaught of German bombs in London, where the couple was living as Frank Hawking undertook research in medicine. In an effort to seek a safer place, Isobel returned to Oxford to have the couple's first child. The Hawkings would go on to have two other children, Mary and Philippa.
And their second son, Edward, was adopted in The Hawkings, as one close family friend described them, were an "eccentric" bunch. Dinner was often eaten in silence, each of the Hawkings intently reading a book. The family car was an old London taxi, and their home in St.
Albans was a three-story fixer-upper that never quite got fixed. The Hawkings also housed bees in the basement and produced fireworks in the greenhouse. InHawking's father took work to manage the Division of Parasitology at the National Institute of Medical Research, and spent the winter months in Africa doing research.
He wanted his eldest child to go into medicine, but at an early age, Hawking showed a passion for science and the sky. That was evident to his mother, who, along with her children, often stretched out in the backyard on summer evenings to stare up at the stars. Hawking was also frequently on the go. With his sister Mary, Hawking, who loved to climb, devised different entry routes into the family home. He loved to dance and also took an interest in rowing, becoming a team coxswain in college.
Early in his academic life, Hawking, while recognized as bright, was not an exceptional student. During his first year at St. Albans Schoolhe was third from the bottom of his class. But Hawking focused on pursuits outside of school; he loved board games, and he and a few close friends created new games of their own.Hawking was born in Oxford into a family of doctors.
Hawking began his university education at University College, Oxford in October at the age of 17, where he received a first-class BA Hons. He began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge in Octoberwhere he obtained his PhD degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativity and cosmology in March During this period—in —Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease that gradually paralysed him over the decades.
Hawking's scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Initially, Hawking radiation was controversial.
By the late s and following the publication of further research, the discovery was widely accepted as a significant breakthrough in theoretical physics. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Hawking achieved commercial success with several works of popular science in which he discussed his theories and cosmology in general.
Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Societya lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciencesand a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedomthe highest civilian award in the United States.
He died on 14 March at the age of 76, after living with motor neurone disease for more than 50 years.Jessie cast now 2020
Inwhen Hawking's father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Researchthe family moved to St AlbansHertfordshire.
He later blamed its " progressive methods " for his failure to learn to read while at the school. At that time, younger boys could attend one of the houses. Hawking attended two independent i. His family could not afford the school fees without the financial aid of a scholarship, so Hawking remained at St Albans. Although known at school as "Einstein", Hawking was not initially successful academically. As it was not possible to read mathematics there at the time, Hawking decided to study physics and chemistry.
Despite his headmaster's advice to wait until the next year, Hawking was awarded a scholarship after taking the examinations in March Hawking began his university education at University College, Oxford in October at the age of He developed into a popular, lively and witty college member, interested in classical music and science fiction.Salta na areia mp3 download
These unimpressive study habits made sitting his finals a challenge, and he decided to answer only theoretical physics questions rather than those requiring factual knowledge. A first-class honours degree was a condition of acceptance for his planned graduate study in cosmology at the University of Cambridge.
Hawking was concerned that he was viewed as a lazy and difficult student. So, when asked at the viva to describe his plans, he said, "If you award me a First, I will go to Cambridge. Hawking's first year as a doctoral student was difficult. He was initially disappointed to find that he had been assigned Dennis William Sciamaone of the founders of modern cosmology, as a supervisor rather than the noted astronomer Fred Hoyle  and he found his training in mathematics inadequate for work in general relativity and cosmology.
Although Hawking had difficulty walking unsupported, and his speech was almost unintelligible, an initial diagnosis that he had only two years to live proved unfounded. With Sciama's encouragement, he returned to his work. When Hawking began his graduate studies, there was much debate in the physics community about the prevailing theories of the creation of the universe: the Big Bang and Steady State theories.
In his work, and in collaboration with Penrose, Hawking extended the singularity theorem concepts first explored in his doctoral thesis. This included not only the existence of singularities but also the theory that the universe might have started as a singularity.
Their joint essay was the runner-up in the Gravity Research Foundation competition. InHawking postulated what became known as the second law of black hole dynamicsthat the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller.
Bardeen and Brandon Carterhe proposed the four laws of black hole mechanicsdrawing an analogy with thermodynamics. Robinson strongly supported Wheeler's no-hair theoremone that states that no matter what the original material from which a black hole is created, it can be completely described by the properties of masselectrical charge and rotation. Beginning inHawking moved into the study of quantum gravity and quantum mechanics.
His results, which Hawking presented fromshowed that black holes emit radiation, known today as Hawking radiationwhich may continue until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. At the time, he was one of the youngest scientists to become a Fellow.Stephen Hawkingin full Stephen William Hawkingborn January 8,OxfordOxfordshire, England—died March 14,CambridgeCambridgeshireEnglish theoretical physicist whose theory of exploding black holes drew upon both relativity theory and quantum mechanics.Ami insurance contact number australia
He also worked with space-time singularities. Stephen Hawking worked on the physics of black holes. He proposed that black holes would emit subatomic particles until they eventually exploded. Hawking studied physics at University College, Oxford B.
He was elected a research fellow at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge. In the early s Hawking contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosisan incurable degenerative neuromuscular disease. Hawking worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the physics of black holes. In he suggested the formation, following the big bangof numerous objects containing as much as one billion tons of mass but occupying only the space of a proton.
These objects, called mini black holesare unique in that their immense mass and gravity require that they be ruled by the laws of relativity, while their minute size requires that the laws of quantum mechanics apply to them also. In Hawking proposed that, in accordance with the predictions of quantum theory, black holes emit subatomic particles until they exhaust their energy and finally explode. In the Royal Society elected him one of its youngest fellows.
Presidential Medal of Freedom in Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter.
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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree Alternative Title: Steven William Hawking.
Top Questions. Stephen Hawking was born on January 8, Stephen Hawking died on March 14, Stephen W. Hawking centre experiencing zero gravity aboard a modified BoeingApril Well-wishers greeting physicist Stephen W. Hawking left receiving the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Inwith Stephen HawkingPenrose proved that all matter within a black hole collapses to a singularity, a geometric point in space where mass is compressed to infinite density and zero volume. Penrose also developed a method of mapping the regions of space-time surrounding a black hole.Hawking wrote the book for readers who had no prior knowledge of physics and people who are interested in learning something new about interesting subjects.
In A Brief History of TimeHawking writes in non-technical terms about the structure, origin, development and eventual fate of the Universewhich is the object of study of astronomy and modern physics. He talks about basic concepts like space and timebasic building blocks that make up the Universe such as quarks and the fundamental forces that govern it such as gravity. He writes about cosmological phenomena such as the Big Bang and black holes. He discusses two major theories, general relativity and quantum mechanicsthat modern scientists use to describe the Universe.
Finally, he talks about the search for a unifying theory that describes everything in the Universe in a coherent manner. The book became a bestseller and sold more than 25 million copies. Early inHawking first approached Simon Mittonthe editor in charge of astronomy books at Cambridge University Presswith his ideas for a popular book on cosmology. Mitton was doubtful about all the equations in the draft manuscript, which he felt would put off the buyers in airport bookshops that Hawking wished to reach.
With some difficulty, he persuaded Hawking to drop all but one equation. The book does employ a number of complex models, diagrams, and other illustrations to detail some of the concepts that it explores. In A Brief History of TimeStephen Hawking attempts to explain a range of subjects in cosmologyincluding the Big Bangblack holes and light conesto the non-specialist reader.
His main goal is to give an overview of the subject, but he also attempts to explain some complex mathematics. In the edition of the book and subsequent editions, Hawking discusses the possibility of time travel and wormholes and explores the possibility of having a Universe without a quantum singularity at the beginning of time.
In the first chapter, Hawking discusses the history of astronomical studiesincluding the ideas of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Aristotle, unlike many other people of his time, thought that the Earth was round. He came to this conclusion by observing lunar eclipseswhich he thought were caused by the Earth's round shadow, and also by observing an increase in altitude of the North Star from the perspective of observers situated further to the north.
Aristotle also thought that the Sun and stars went around the Earth in perfect circles, because of "mystical reasons". Second-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy also pondered the positions of the Sun and stars in the Universe and made a planetary model that described Aristotle's thinking in more detail.
Today, it is known that the opposite is true: the Earth goes around the Sun. The Aristotelian and Ptolemaic ideas about the position of the stars and Sun were overturned by a series of discoveries in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The first person to present a detailed argument that the Earth revolves around the Sun was the Polish priest Nicholas Copernicusin Nearly a century later, Galileo Galileian Italian scientist, and Johannes Keplera German scientist, studied how the moons of some planets moved in the sky, and used their observations to validate Copernicus's thinking.
To fit the observations, Kepler proposed an elliptical orbit model instead of a circular one. In his book on gravity, Principia MathematicaIsaac Newton used complex mathematics to further support Copernicus's idea. Newton's model also meant that stars, like the Sun, were not fixed but, rather, faraway moving objects.
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